Hydraulic cylinders draw power from a pressurised hydraulic fluid, which is typically some type of oil. The hydraulic cylinder basically consists of two parts: a barrel cylinder and a movable piston or plunger connected to a piston rod. The barrel cylinder is closed at both ends, with the bottom at one end and the head at the other end, through which the piston is inserted and which has a bore through which the piston rod exits. The piston divides the inside of the cylinder into two chambers: the lower chamber and the piston rod chamber. Hydraulic pressure acts on the piston to produce the linear movement.
The maximum force is a function of the active surface area of the piston and the maximum allowable pressure, where: F = P * A
This force is constant from the beginning to the end of the stroke. The speed depends on the fluid flow and the piston surface. Depending on the version, the cylinder can apply tensile and/or compressive forces.